Purchase orders are requests to a seller to provide a certain product or service. Purchase orders are a business tool to control both physical and financial outcomes related to operational activities. For publicly traded entities, they are required as a function of internal controls to minimize defalcations.
Internal controls are used to ensure proper physical and financial operations of a business. Internal controls consist of various tools that monitor production and operations. Internal controls are used to deter fraud, detect theft, and preserve assets.
Just as manufacturing uses controls to ensure quality of product, controls are used in accounting to generate accurate information, maintain security over assets and comply with Generally Accepted Accounting Standards. The company implements various controls to assure accurate and timely information.
Internal control is a subset of the accounting system to aid in proper reporting of existing assets and liabilities. Internal controls over fixed assets alleviate two distinct risks. The primary risk is physical in nature and relates to the asset getting lost, stolen or damaged thereby affecting the value as reported on the financial statements. The second risk is financial in nature related to errors in determining cost basis, useful life, and depreciation assigned; all of which can affect value.
Each risk uses a separate set of controls to minimize or eliminate the exposure and reduce management’s concern that the financial value as reported is incorrect. This article explains the standard set of controls for each risk group.
In the mid 90’s, the Internal Revenue Service created an audit guide specifically for pizza establishments. Today, this guide along with the Retail Industry Guide, specifically Chapter 4 which covers the examination techniques for the food service industry is used to audit the typical family style pizza restaurant. If you own a pizza restaurant, this article is designed to prepare you for an audit.
Skimming is a generic term referring to taking a little bit off the top. In dairy, it refers to the cream at the top of the milk pail. With painting, it refers to a very thin coat of paint to identify imperfections with the wallboard. In business, it means taking a little bit of the revenue without recording the revenue to the books of record. It is very common in your cash based operations.