Financial statements serve the purpose of presenting economic activity and status related to a particular date and over a particular time frame. Accountants record monetary transactions and via financial reports present the information in an easy to understand format. The financial statements for a small business do not have to comply with those of publicly traded operations.
Equity is a broad based term used in business. It has several definitions. The primary definition is associated with the equity section of the balance sheet. It refers to the financial position of the owners of a business.
To prevent an uncomfortable and embarrassing separation, the owners should agree on how to separate before joining together. Very similar to a prenuptial in marriage, a ‘Cross Purchase Agreement’ identifies the various business issues to address such as valuation of the ownership position, the respective form of purchasing the departing ownership and time period of payout.
In poker, deuces are often called the wild card. You can use the card as a ‘Two’ or as any other card in the deck. In effect, you can convert the card to something else. Well, convertible debt uses the same principle in business. The holder of the convertible instrument has a choice, continue to collect interest as a debt instrument or convert the debt to equity.
In the arsenal of capitalizing a business operation, long term debt serves as one of the primary sources of capital. If you are an owner of a small business, you need to understand the relationship this source has to the overall financial status of the company. Too much debt and the owner is burden by the cash outlays to service.
The process of collecting a large pool of investors, each contributing or investing a small amount of dollars for a highly focused project is referred to as crowdfunding. The crowd is financing the project or goal. This is very similar to how large non-profits address significant events worldwide. A good example is the American Red Cross addressing disaster relief in the aftermath of a major natural tragedy.
The trial balance is an accountant’s report used to identify issues with the respective ledger accounts. In general, the trial balance sums all the debits and credits in the footer section and the accountant verifies that the total debits equal total credits. This confirms proper entry in the dual entry accounting system.