In the previous 25 lessons I covered a lot of different terms and this lesson is merely a summary of the various terms a bookkeeper encounters.
Revenue is sometimes referred to as sales. Revenue is more comprehensive as it comprises, sales, customer returns or allowances, adjustments to revenues/sales, and other revenue related items to generate the total revenue/receipts for the small business.
To fully grasp the concept of accounting a bookkeeper must accept that there are six (6) different types of accounts. All the reports, ledgers, journals and entries revolve around these six types of accounts. Bookkeeping is the function of entering data based on the economic transaction into the respective type of account.
The scholarly definition and reality are two different perspectives. The student is taught that marginal revenue equals the additional dollars generated for an additional single unit of sales. It is literally taken right down to the micro measurement. This is simple to understand but in small business, the scope of its meaning and impact are substantial to the bottom line.
The goal of accounting is to record the economic activity of the business. This is achieved by entering each economic transaction into a set of books. The books are formatted to reflect the balance sheet and income statement items. The chart of accounts is designed to present the information in the prescribed format.
The Sixteenth Amendment to the Constitution of the United States gives authority to Congress to tax income. The Internal Revenue Service defines revenue via a term ‘Gross Income’. In Chapter 26 of the Federal Code (Chapter 26 is the Internal Revenue Code) Section 61, Congress defines gross income as “… all income from whatever source derived…”. This means even the penny you pick up off the ground is considered income.
Sales are a component of revenue. Revenue encompasses several sources of income including sales. Other sources of revenue include interest, trust monies, royalties, and fees. In effect, revenue includes all sources of income, realized and unrealized. Sales are divided into two levels, gross sales are all sales at the regular price; net sales are gross sales less discounts or adjustments associated with that particular product(s).