In the normal taxpayer relationship with the Internal Revenue Service, the taxpayer is an employee and via withholding, taxes are paid the U.S. Government by the employer. Basically the employer pays the tax after each payroll run on behalf of all the employees and the corresponding mandated matching taxes (Social Security and Medicare). But in the small business world, this is not the normal relationship.
The individual tax return on an annual basis is known as the Form 1040. The Internal Revenue Service monitors the filing of Form 1040 by all individuals. There are a multitude of variables involved with the Form 1040 and the these articles identify and explain the nuances.
When an individual passes away, his/her will or trust identifies a representative to administer his/her estate. This representative is referred to as the executor (male) or executrix (female) and is generally approved or assigned by the local circuit court. The Internal Revenue Service tasks this representative to file a final personal return and information returns until the estate is completely transferred to the heirs.