Types of Credit Cards
There are a multitude of different cards available on the market. Most of the cards are third-party lenders using Master Card or VISA as the brand. Sometimes small businesses use merchant cards such as Lowe’s or Home Depot. Even fuel cards are a function of the merchant system.
The best method of monitoring the card is to limit each card to their respective function. In effect one card is for fuel, another is for materials or dedicated to goods for resale and so on. Naturally the merchant cards are automatically restricted to their preset function. But even in this case, sometimes it is a good idea to further restrict the card’s purpose.
As an example, for one client I restricted the Lowe’s card to job materials only. Any tools purchased had to be bought using a particular VISA card. This made it easier to control purchases for this contractor.
Organization of Ledgers
The key to bookkeeping success is proper organization and processes to verify and enter the data into the accounting system. Credit cards are a current liability and thus located in that section of the chart of accounts.
Credit cards should be set up right after accounts payable in the line-up. Good organization breaks the credit card accounts into two separate groups. One group is for cards with a function towards production (cost of sales). The second group of cards are focused on operational expenses. Below is an appropriate model:
Accounts Payable – Suppliers
Accounts Payable – Expenses
Credit Cards – Production
Credit Cards – Operations
Each credit card group is set as a parent-child format and the credit cards have their own respective sub-account. I encourage including the last four digits of the account number in the account name as illustrated below:
Accounts Payable – Suppliers
Accounts Payable – Subcontractors
Accounts Payable – Expenses
Credit Cards – Production (Parent Account)
VISA # 8011
VISA # 2935
Home Depot # 5117
Lowes # 5345
Credit Cards – Operations (Parent Account)
Fleet Fuel # 6942-1
Fleet Fuel # 6942-2
VISA # 3777
American Express # 0701
Line of Credit
Billings on Account
The above layout is actually for a residential remodeler.
Note the separation of each card as its own unique account. It follows a similar pattern used in cash accounts. Remember there is a separate account for each checking or petty cash physical location. Why have a separate account for each credit card?
Simple answer: there is an online ability to monitor activity each day in the account just like bank accounts.
The most basic need in small business is also the one with the least amount of action – communication. Each day several individuals within the business structure have and use credit cards. For you, you need those receipts to properly record the particular transaction.
To complete this daily task, those with credit cards should turn in their receipts every day for processing. As you receive the tickets match them up against the online report for that particular card. Any online activity without a receipt should be addressed. Hound the card users to turn in the receipts and keep up with the activity. The following are some examples of credit card entries:
Date ID Ledger Description DR CR
Today 201511194102 Fuel 19.3 Gal’s Unit #2 53.00
201511194102 CCO FF#6942-219.3 Gal’s Unit #2 53.00
Today 4791 COS – Mts Vanity Set/Sink – Hugan 293.42
4791 CCP – HD#5117 Vanity Set/Sink – Hugan 293.42
Today 4792 FA-Equipment Table Saw 577.41
4792 FA-Equipment Blade/Jig Kit 406.31
4792 CCO-VISA#3777 Table Saw/Jig Kit 983.72
As each receipt is turned in, record the information to the books and use a processing stamp to authorize the ticket. The stamp process is explained in Processing the Documents. The stamp basically requires approval by management, usually the owner, prior to entry into the books. Once approved enter the ticket into the system using the purchases journal. After entering all the prior day’s tickets/receipts and verbal communication; it is time to reconcile.
Reconciliation requires two sources of information. With credit cards the primary source is the online statement. There will be an ending balance of amount owed. It is unusual or rare for the credit card company to be out of balance as all the entries are instantaneous.
The most common item or difference is something missing in the ledger for the respective credit card. The ledger is the second source of information used in the reconciliation process. Once all the entries tie to the credit card account statement and the ending balances match the account is reconciled.
To add interest fees for any balance after the payment deadline, use either the purchases or general journal to enter the information. There should be an account in costs of capital section of the expense type of accounts named ‘Credit Card Fees and Interest’ to post any penalty fees and monthly interest charges.
Below is the layout on the income statement and a purchase journal entry for a credit card penalty and interest charge.
For the Month Ending November 30, 2015
Cost of Sales 37,196
Gross Profit 34,008
Cost of Capital (Expanded Mode)
Interest and Fees:
Credit Card Fees 215
Total Interest and Fees 1,957
Sub-Total Capital Costs 5,865
Note how the interest and fees are separated between long-term debt and short-term liabilities. Sometimes there is a third line for regular accounts payable fees or interest charges including the line of credit interest. Let’s look at one of the interest and penalty fee entries posted to the general journal for a late payment.
Date Ledger Description DR CR
11/23/15 Credit Card Interest Interest on $2,402.18 Bal. 28.03
CC-Late Payment (Int & Fees) Lowe’s Penalty #5345 35.00
CCP-Lowe’s #5345 Interest for Oct/Nov 28.03
CCP-Lowe’s #5345 Penalty (Late Payment) 35.00
Notice the cards recorded entries (the credits) are separated and not combined? The reason for this is how the statement will present and in order to reconcile you need to separate the two unique items.
Technology Management of Credit Card Accounts
Most modern accounting software programs manage credit card accounts in a similar fashion to bank accounts. There is a built-in reconciliation routine allowing the bookkeeper the ability to load unrecorded entries on the fly. For a better understanding of reconciliations please read: Bank Reconciliation – A Basic Understanding.
QuickBooks uses a separate entry screen located within the vendor area allowing for easy and quick entry of information.
I encourage bookkeepers to spend time each day updating the respective credit card accounts. The process includes:
- Get prior day receipts from all credit card users.
- Process the receipts as one group and forward to management for authorization.
- Technically write up each receipt for function, project identification, phase and classification.
- Enter all tickets into their respective credit card accounts, scan into proper folders.
- Go online and review each credit card for any missing receipts; track down the missing information.
- Reconcile to the ledger all credit card accounts.
When the time comes to pay the credit card, use the cash disbursements system and pay the respective card at least one week in advance of the due date. Often this can be done online.
I have already mentioned several control procedures but I will include them anyway in my list below:
- Separate cards into functions of business. Cards are restricted to their function only. Gas cards should not be used for repairs or vehicle service unless an emergency.
- Organize the chart of accounts to match the two major groups of cards – production and operations.
- Cards should be restricted to an individual or to a machine (one gas card per vehicle).
- All receipts must be turned in daily.
- Receipts (tickets) are processed just like any bill received.
- After approval and entry, receipts are scanned to the appropriate directory and place in the credit card folder for that respective credit card account.
- Accounts are reconciled frequently (no less than weekly), any inappropriate activity is questioned.
- Immediately verify any high dollar expenditures via a phone call to the user.
Summary – Purchases Via Credit Cards
A lot of purchases in business are made with credit cards by several different employees of the company. To control and process this information all cards are restricted to a function of business, either production or operations. Each card is assigned to one individual or to a piece of equipment. To process this information a separate account is created in the chart of accounts for each card and grouped based on function.
Use control procedures to properly process information and manage the volume of receipts resulting from purchases. The bookkeeper needs to spend time each day updating and processing this information. Finally reconcile the respective accounts frequently. Act on Knowledge.