Fair Market Value

Fair market value (FMV) is the price a reasonable person with all the pertinent knowledge would pay for a particular product/service or ownership rights of a business. Fair market value is commonly used in the real estate industry, but it is much broader. Anytime there are many buyers for a product, the buyers set the fair market value. Limited buyers for a product creates questionable value.

Essex Property Trust – Value Investment Fund Buy

Value Investment Fund

Recently, the Fund reevaluated Essex Property Trust Inc. and increased the company’s intrinsic value to $291 per share. In an article written in January of 2021, the Facilitator determined intrinsic value at $256 per share. In the course of one year, many market forces have elevated this intrinsic value higher. With real estate investment trusts (REITs), intrinsic value is strongly tied to fair market value of properties. At the end of 2020, the overall fair market value of the entire portfolio of apartments for Essex was estimated at net assets value (adjusted for closing costs, costs to sell, pay-off of associated debt and costs to eliminate book balance of financing outlays) of $19.14 Billion. This made each share worth approximately $283. During the last 16 months, the market value of real estate has jumped over 16%. Using a mere 12% adjustment to this portfolio, the modified net assets value now exceeds $21.8 Billion. This alone adds $36 per share in value. Utilizing net assets value by itself warrants an intrinsic value of $319 per share. And this assumes only a 12% increase in value over 16 months.

Railroad Fund – Status on 01/31/2020

Railroad Fund

During the last 30 days, the fund held 13.52375 shares (original investment of $2,500) and sold them on 01/17/2020 at 9:40 AM when the price in the market hit the target under the value investment principle at $207.17.  The value investing principle (simply stated) required the share price to hit the prior peak price which was $206.46.  However, on that morning, the share price instantly jumped past $206.46 to $207.17 triggering the sale of the stock.  The gain on the sale net of costs of $1.00 per share to buy and $1.00 per share to sell was $288.19.  The stock was purchased on 10/23/19 at $183.86.

Value Investing

Value Investing

Value investing is a concept of buying and selling stocks based on business fundamentals and not as a reaction to news or market trends. It is a well accepted principle that often the market overreacts to news causing stocks to plummet in price or escalate in value. Value investors ignore this and use sound business fundamentals to trade stock. Much of historical wealth accumulation is based in value investments. There are no short-cuts or sudden actions taken by value investors. All decisions are derived by business analytics and trend lines.

EBITDA – Drawbacks

EBITDA

There are several business financial attributes required for EBITDA (Earnings Before Interest, Taxes, Depreciation and Amortization) to work well as a basis for the multiple of earnings method (the method used with the Market Comparable Valuation Approach); see Fair Market Value for a better understanding of the three primary business valuation approaches.

EBITDA – Buyer Beware (Case Study)

EBITDA

This article will illustrate the opposite effect using the same business information. A buyer of a business should be leery of financial information and look for improper accounting processes. The goal is to reduce the operational income and ultimately the value of the business. The goal is to get the business valuation to a realistic number.

Financial Leverage in Real Estate

Leverage Ratios

Financial leverage refers to using a third party’s money to increase profit for the borrower. With real estate, the profit or equity in the property is the weight being lifted by the use of a lever (borrowing money) on the fulcrum (the property).

Fair Market Value

Fair Market Value

Value at the individual level is strictly personal.  But as more buyers for the same item come into play the price of the item begins to stabilize. If there are hundreds of thousands of buyers, the price reaches a high level of consistency or what is called ‘Fair Market Value’.

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