The one single term mostly equated to capitalism is ‘Stock’. When a business is incorporated, stock is the core medium of exchange for the investment. The company issues a certificate referred to as stock in exchange for the investment – most often cash. This is the one true form of pure risk. Most other forms of investments generally have some form of collateral, credit, or cash flow to substantiate the investment.
Capital Paid in Excess
Capital paid in excess refers to the dollars that are paid for the stock that exceed the par value. Capital paid in excess is an account name used in the chart of accounts and its ledger
The equity section of the balance sheet equals assets minus liabilities. Traditionally the equity section is referred to as the net worth of the company. If you were to dispose of all the assets through a sale and pay off liabilities, the money left over would be available for distribution to the shareholders. The shareholders basically own the equity section of the balance sheet.