The trial balance is a special report used by accountants and bookkeepers. It is NOT a management nor a financial report. Its primary purpose is verification of account balances and compliance to the dual entry system (debits equal credits). It is generally utilized as the first step in the closing process for interim and annual reporting. Experienced bookkeepers use the trial balance to spot egregious errors and obvious discrepancies.
Month: July 2017
One of the many tasks for bookkeeper in their daily operations is reconciling accounts including bank accounts, accounts receivable, accounts payable and many others. Invariably, the balances are off and need adjusting. To reset or balance the account the bookkeeper must use an adjusting journal entry.
A journal entry with multiple lines of entry affecting several different ledgers (accounts) is commonly referred to as a complex entry. Many bookkeepers shy away from them as they feel intimidated by the difficulty involved and do not want to make an error. This lesson helps the bookkeeper understand how to break the complex entry down into a series of standard entries.
Many small business owners are actively involved in the community and thus donate time and money to their favorite cause. In almost every case the owner believes the donation is a business deduction. It is NOT a business deduction for tax purposes except under the C-Corporation status; however, the business is still writing the check. Therefore the bookkeeper must still track the deduction and identify the donation properly so the gift is deductible on the owner’s personal tax return.
One of the activity ratios in business is the receivables turnover ratio or rate. This ratio measures the frequency of collecting the entire balance of accounts receivable during a standard accounting year. The ideal turns rate is twelve with a higher value indicating an aggressive collection process. A lower value is a warning about accounts receivable management.
The Internal Revenue Service scrutinizes expenses that can and often are benefits to owners. The most common benefit is the use of a company owned car for personal travel including using the car to get to and from work. Owners would love to have this cost of travel paid by the company and deductible for tax purposes.
Some small businesses manage transportation costs in incremental payments by utilizing mileage reimbursement. It is a very advantageous system if used correctly. Other small businesses augment their existing vehicle fleet by paying employees via mileage reimbursement for the use of the employee’s automobile.
The Internal Revenue Service authorizes two different methods to deduct expenses for vehicle operations. The most commonly used method in small business is the mileage reimbursement method explained in Lesson 61. The second method is the actual cost of vehicle operations which is explained and illustrated here.